Chapter 27: Gravitational

Chapter 27: Gravitational


The term ‘slips, trips and falls’ is treated almost as a single word in the workplace context with, in some cases, differentiation between a ‘fall on the same level’ and ‘a fall from a height.’ Such occurrences rank among the most significant causal factors in workplace injury and death in Australia, and there have been only relatively minor reductions in the injury rate in the last 10 years. Hazard identification, risk assessment and development of control strategies require an understanding of the physics of gravitational energy and the mechanisms of causation. This chapter uses injury statistics to examine the extent of the problem and the agencies of injury of slips, trips and falls (on the same level and from heights), and due to being hit by falling objects. It facilitates understanding of gravitational hazards with an overview of the relevant physics of gravity and the normal gait of a person, and examines the different mechanisms of a slip, a trip and a misstep. The importance of building design in prevention of injuries related to gravitational hazards is highlighted through a discussion on causation and scenario examples for control. The chapter concludes by discussing the role of the generalist OHS professional in preventing injuries from gravitational hazards.

Keywords: gravity, slip, trip, fall, misstep, falling objects,

First year of publication: 2012
Current Version Underview: 2019

Chapter 27: Gravitational

Table of contents

1 Introduction
2 Historical perspective
3 Extent of the problem
4 Understanding gravitational hazards
4.1 Physics
4.2 Slips
4.3 Trips
4.4 Missteps
4.6 Falling objects
5 Legislation and standards
5.2 Falls from heights
5.3 Falling objects
6 Control of gravitational hazards
6.1 Elimination and substitution
6.2 Barriers and defences
6.3 Application of control strategies
7 Implications for OHS practice
8 Summary

Neil Adams M.SafetySc, BSc(Hons), DipEd, MHFESA
Director, Neil Adams and Associates

Neil has worked as an ergonomist and safety management consultant for approximately 20 years and represents the HFESA on the Slip Resistance Standards as well as the Access Standards. He is an independent consultant who has lectured at UNSW and La Trobe University in workplace risk assessment. He has prepared over 2000 legal liability reports in compensation claims, including over 500 in slip/trip and fall cases and has advised various organisations as well as commercial and residential property owners in relation to preventing such incidents.

Paul Breslin MAppSc(OHS), GDipOHM, DipOHS, MWkpl&EmpLaw, CPMSIA, MAIRM
OHS&E Manager, Construction and Development, Brookfield Multiplex Group

Paul has worked in the building and construction industry for approximately 29 years working his way up from a health and safety representative to OHS and environmental management roles which he has occupied for the last 14 years. Paul has combined academic qualifications with practical hands-on experience to develop skills in designing, managing and implementing health and safety strategies and systems.

Peer reviewer
Max Hely BAppSc, BSc(Hons), CPE Director, Safety Science Associates

Learning Outcomes: Physical Hazards - Gravitational

The OHS Body of Knowledge takes a conceptual approach which enables it to be applied in different contexts and frameworks.

To optimise its value for education and professional development learning outcomes have been developed for each technical chapter in the Body of Knowledge.

The learning outcomes as described give an indication of what should be the capabilities of an OHS professional; it is up to those developing OHS education programs, OHS professionals planning their CPD or recruiters or employers selecting or developing people for the OHS function to consider the required breadth vs. depth .

Please read the section on using the learning outcomes before delving into the leaning outcomes of the individual chapters.

The numbers against each learning outcome refer to the chapter number of the BOK download page. No learning outcomes have been developed for the chapters considered introductory or underpinning knowledge (that is chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1, .13, 14, 15.)

Find Out More About Using the OHS BOK Learning Outcomes